In this session, we will discuss what is management the top level of management, the middle level of management, the lower level of management, and its function like Planning, organizing, staffing, leading, leadership, motivation, communication, controlling.
What is Management?
Management is that type of word we all over the world are engaging in Management. So Management is everywhere. Any time anywhere people works at a goal then they are engaging in management.
So today I am going to explain What is Management?……. Today Million of men and women around the world spend their days as Managers in organizations. Management Manage any kind of Organization. Management can be defining all activities and tasks undertaken for achieving goals. So Good Management is the backbone of a successful organization.
Resources can be dependent on Human, Physical and Financial, and informational. Good Management gets successful in an organization with people using planning, decision making, leading, organizing, controlling, and motivation to achieve goals efficiently and effectively in a dynamic environment.
In the session on what is management, we will also discuss the level of management.
The level of management can be dedicated by the following points.
- Top-level of management
- The middle level of management
- The lower level of management
Level of Management
In simple words, we discuss three levels. There is the three-level find within an organization, where managers at these levels have a different role to perform for the organization to have a smooth performance. The level of Management defines the managerial position relationship between Top level of Management, the Middle level of Management, and the third one is Lower level of Management. The term level of Management refers to the line of division that exists between various positions in an organization.
In this session, we will define three specific definitions of these levels, as well as the responsibilities of the managers that fall into these categories.
Top Level of Management
In the top level of management, there are the highest levels of managers. the top-level of managers is a small group of executives. The level managers have all over responsibility for the survival, growth, and welfare of the organization also the top-level Managers are taken all over the decision and establish policies. The top-level managers set overall goals for the organization and make the decision to achieve them. In the organization, any kinds of issues are the overall responsibility of the top-level Managers.
The top-level of management is made up of the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Chief Operational Officer (COO), Chief Information Officer (CIO), Chairperson of the Board, President, Vice President, Corporate Head.
The top-level management role and responsibilities can be dedicated to the following points.
- The Top-level Managers lay down the objectives and board policies of the organization.
- Top Managers issues necessary instructions for the preparation of department budgets, schedules, procedures, etc.
- Top Managers set goals for the enterprise and make the decision to achieve them.
- It participates in the hiring and training processes of lower-level managers.
- Top Management provides guidance and direction in the organization.
The middle level of management
The middle level is the largest group of managers in most organizations. They implement strategies, policies, and plans developed by top-level managers. The middle level of managers is responsible for controlling and supervising the activities of the lower level of management.
In other words, In a smaller organization there is only one layer of the middle level of management but In the largest organization there where we can see senior and junior middle levels of management. Though the top level of management is the head and brain of the organization, the personnel in the middle managers actually take part in the execution of the plans and experience difficulties in the invoice.
The middle level of managers has to works between the pressures of top-level 0f managers and lower levels of managers. Middle managers have set operational goals for the organization. Department Management, Division head, and plant superintendent represent middle managers Functional managers for marketing, finance, production is middle managers.
The role and responsibilities of the middle level of management can be dedicated by the following points.
- Middle managers executing the plans of the enterprises in accordance with the strategies, policies, and directives laid out by the top level of managers.
- Level of middle managers inspiring lower-level managers towards improving their performance.
- Middle-level managers form plans for the sub-units of the enterprises that they supervise.
- It is evaluating the performance of junior managers.
- Middle managers participating in the training and hiring processes of the lower levels of managers.
- They sending reports and data to top management in a timely and efficient.
- Middle managers interpret and explaining the policies from the top-level of managers.
The lower level of Management
The lower level is known as first-line managers. They consist of Supervisor, Foreman, Section head represent lower managers. lower levels are essential personnel that communicates the fundamental problems of the firm to the higher levels. They hold entry-level managerial positions. lower levels are subordinate to middle managers.
The lower level is the intermediary. They solve their issue amidst the workers and is responsible for the maintenance of appropriate relationships within the enterprises. The lower level is also responsible for training, directing, and supervising the operative employees.
In other words, Lower level managers are concerned with the direction and controlling the function of management. They are responsible for the implementation and control of operational plans. The lower level of the managers directly supervises the activities of subordinates also sets goals for operative employees.
The roles and responsibilities of the lower level of management can be dedicated by the following points
- lower levels assigning and tasks to various workers.
- They guiding and instructing workers in day-to-day activities.
- lower levels are helping to address and resolve the grievances of workers.
- They are maintaining good relationships within the lower levels of the organization.
- lower levels are the acting mediators by communicating the problems, recommendatory appeals, and suggestions, etc.
- its are guiding and supervising their subordinates.
- They are taking part in the training and hiring processes of their workers.
- They are arranging necessary Machines, Tools, Materials, and resources, etc necessary for accomplishing organizational tasks.
- They are upholding discipline, harmony, and decorum within the workplace.
- They are improving the enterprise’s image as a whole, due to their direct contact with the workers.
- They are preparing periodical reports regarding the performance of the workers.
In the session on what is management, we will also discuss the function of management.
We have to discuss management as a process to achieve organizational goals. A process is a systematic way of doing things. The main aim is the management as a process to attaining goals effectively. Management functions are universally applicable. The arguments for this thinking are.
- Management is a need in any kind of enterprise. It is need in any kinds of economic systems totalitarian, capitalist, or mix also it is need at all levels of management like Top-level, Middle level, Lower level.
- Management functions and principles are applicable in any type of situation.
- Management is what management does. It has a systematic body of knowledge.
- Management is both an art and a science.
- Modern theories regard that management as necessary for all types of enterprises. But management practices are situational. Management differs from culture to culture, situational to situational specific.
- Functions constitute the essence of the management process. The management process consists of primary functions that managers must perform, Planning, organizing, staffing, leading, controlling.
Planning is the basic function of management also it is the key to the success of any kind of organization. It is setting goals and deciding how best to achieve them. Planning is an exercise in problem-solving and decision-making. It is predetermining future. Planning is selecting goals and coerces of action to achieve them. It is the function of every management. Planning scope and nature differ according to the level of managers. like that Top level of managers set mission and objectives lower-level of managers to execute the plans.
In other words, before starting any kind of organization anyone has to decide how the organization will be performing and where and how it has to be performed. Planning is decision-making in advance about what to do, how to do when to do it, who is to do it, it is time-bound. Plans provide targets. They allocate resources in a coordinated manner. It also serves as the standard for control. They offset uncertainty plans can be classified into two sectors that one is standing plans and another is single-uses plans so that standing plans include policies, procedures, objectives, rules, and methods. single-use plans included strategies, budgets, programs, and projects.
After the Planning, we have to establish a structure of the business. Organizing is determining how to group resources and activities. Organizing is the coordinating and differentiating activities to carry out the plan that plan make by the top level of management. Once a manager can make a plan to how to organize the organization to reach the goals. All the tasks necessary to achieve goals are assigned to levels and people who can do the best. Organizing is deciding where and how decisions will be made, who will do what jobs and tasks, who will work from whom, and how resources will assemble.
Organizing can be dedicated by the following points.
- Determining and defining the activities required to achieve goals. What tasks need to be done?
- Grouping the activities in a logical pattern. how the activities are to be groupe?
- Designing a structure, Who is to do those activities? Assigning the group activities to position and people.
- Coordinating activities to achieve harmony of efforts. how the activities are coordinate.
- Organizing involves grouping activities, designing authority responsibility structure, coordinating mechanisms, and creating channels of communication.
Staffing is assigning and acquiring people to carry out activities. It is keeping and filling filled positions in the organization structure. In the organization, the position is matches their skills. Especially the member of management in the organization. The main purpose of staffing is to be put the right person on the right jobs. According to Harold Koontz and Cyril O’ Donell, “the managerial function of staffing involves managing the organization structure through the proper and effective selection, appraisal and development of personnel to fill the roles designed on the structure. it involves
The staffing can be dedicated by the following points
- Manpower planning estimating the term of searching chose the person and giving the right place.
- Acquiring, developing, utilizing, and maintaining people.
- Transfer and promotions.
- Preparation of manpower inventory of existing people.
- Job analysis to determine job specification and job description (skills for activities and qualification).
leading is that type of managerial function to directing the activities of others. leading is getting people to work together. it is motivating and influencing people to perform tasks for goal achievement. leading is considere the life-spark of the organization which sets in motion the action of people because of planning, organizing, and staffing managerial preparations for doing the works. It is that interest-personal aspect of management that deals directly with influencing.
Leading consist of (LMC)
Leadership may be define as the process of guides and influences the works of subordinates to enthusiastically and willingly contribute towards goals. leadership requires followers. The situation is important for leadership.
Motivation may be define as the inducement to contribute toward goal achievement. It is the act of inspiring, stimulating, or encouraging people to contribute at some higher rate for higher productivity.
It is the process of passing information, opinion, experience, etc from one person to another person. Communication is the bridge of understanding. It involves the flow of information from top to bottom, bottom to top, and at horizontal and lateral levels.
Control is the process of monitoring and correcting ongoing activities to facilitate goal achievement. The essence of control lies in checking existing actions against some desired result determined in the planning process. According to Koontz & O Donnell, ‘Controlling is the measurment and correction of performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished”.
The controlling function can be dedicated by the following points
- Establishing standards ( what should be done?): Standards serve as the criteria for performance. Planning sets the standards.
- Measuring actual performance ( what really was done): Internal reports provide information about actual performance.
- Finding and analyzing deviations ( How much and why differences?): Actual performance is compared with standards. Derivations are found. The causes of deviations are analyze.
- Corrective actions: Action is taken to correct derivations. They provide feedback for setting future standards. This step is the crux of control.