What is Supply definition in economics? Meaning, Determinants, example

Spread the love

In this session, we will be discussing what is supply in economics, supply meaning in economics, supply definition in economics, supply formula, supply graph, supply characteristics in economics, types of supply in economics, determinants of supply in economics, supply function, the difference between supply and demand, supply and demand example, what is a supply shock.

What is supply in economics?

In economics, supply is the total amount of goods and services that are available to be purchased. Supply is an important factor in determining the price of goods and services.

Supply and demand are two interrelated terms that represent the relationship between the quantity and price of a product. Supply is the amount of a good or service available to consumers at a given price, and demand is the amount of a good or service that consumers will buy at a given price. Supply and demand are continually interacting to determine prices and quantities in markets.

Supply is a measure of how many goods or services are available to buy. It’s the opposite of demand, which is a measure of how much people want something. Economists use supply and demand to understand how prices work in a market economy, and why prices change over time.

The supply in the term of economics is expressed by the four essential elements. quantity of a commodity, willingness to sell, price of the commodity, period of time. so, let’s discuss the actual meaning of supply by combining the four essential elements.

In economics, supply refers to the quantity of a commodity that a firm is willing and able to offer for sale at a given price during a given period of time.

Supply can be expressed as

Sx = F(Px)


Sx = Supply of good x

Px = Price of good x

In this session on supply definition, we will be also discussing the definition of supply in economics according to the definitions of different authors. R.G. Lipsey, George Leyland, Getz and Watson, Prof. Meyers, prof Thomas.

Supply Definition

Supply definition defined by R.G. Lipsey, “The quantity of a commodity that firms will be willing and able to offer for sale is called the amount furnished of a commodity.”

According to the supply definition by George Leyland, “Supply is a schedule of an amount that will be offered for sale at different prices during some time period other things remaining unchanged.”

Supply definition defined by Getz and Watson, “In economic, the word supply means a schedule of possible prices and of amounts that would be sold at each price”.

According to the supply definition by Prof.  Meyers, “Supply as a time table of the number of products that might be presented for sale at all viable prices at one immediate of time, at some stage in any individual time frame, for example, a day, a week and so forth wherein the conditions of delivery remain the equal”.

According to prof Thomas, “The supply of goods is the quantity offered for sale in a given market at various prices.”

In the session on supply definition, we will also be discussing supply characteristics in economics.

Supply Characteristics in economics

The supply characteristics in economics can be dedicated to the following points.

  1. Supply is the favored quantity
  2. Supply of a commodity does no longer contain the complete stock of the commodity
  3. Three. Supply is constantly expressed almost about price
  4. Supply is always with respect to a time period

Supply is the favored quantity

It is important to note that in economics, supply refers only to the number of goods or services that firms are willing to provide at any given price; it does not refer to the number of goods or services that people are willing or able to buy.

Supply of a commodity does no longer contain the complete stock of the commodity:

It indicates the quantity that the firm is willing to carry into the market at a particular fee. For example, the supply of TV through Samsung in the marketplace isn’t always the whole available inventory of TV units. It is the quantity, which Samsung is inclined to carry into the marketplace for sale.

Three. Supply is constantly expressed almost about price:

Just like the call for, the delivery of a commodity is continually at a rate because with an exchange in price, the amount furnished may additionally exchange.

Supply is always with respect to a time period:

Supply is the quantity, which the firm is willing to deliver in the course of a specific time period (a day, a week, a month, or a year).

In the session on supply definition, we will also be discussing types of supply in economics.

Types of Supply in economics

The types of supply in economics can be dedicated to the following points.

  1. Market Supply
  2. Short-term Supply
  3. Long-term Supply
  4. Joint Supply
  5. Composite Supply

Market supply

Market supply, which is also known as market equilibrium, is the point at which the supply of a good or service meets the demand for that good or service. It is an economic term that deals with the price of a product and how much of it is available in the market.

Short-run supply

The short-term supply of a commodity is the amount of that commodity that is available to the market at any given moment. This supply fluctuates based on demand for the commodity, however, it can also be influenced by external factors such as weather conditions. Short-term supply is important because it helps determine the price of a good.

Long-term supply

Economists use the term long-term supply to describe how much of a given product is available at a particular time, typically for an extended period. Long-term supply is simply the total amount of a product that will be made available for purchase by consumers over a specific period of time. This concept can be applied to almost anything, from cars to diamonds.

Joint supply

In economics, joint supply refers to the production of different goods or services together, as opposed to selling them individually. This is common practice in many industries, such as the entertainment industry where movies and albums are produced simultaneously. Joint supply also occurs in agricultural markets where certain crops are harvested together and sold as a group.

Composite supply

Composite supply is a term used in economics to describe the supply of several different products that are produced at the same time. This may be because the product’s supply is controlled by a single entity, or because it is efficient for production to happen simultaneously. Composite supply is useful in determining how changes in demand will affect the price of all goods supplied simultaneously.

In the session on supply definition, we will be also discussing determinants of supply in economics.

Determinants of Supply in economics

The determinants of supply refer to the factors that influence the quantity of a good or service that suppliers are willing to provide at any given price. These include the Price of a product, Cost of production, Natural conditions, Transportation conditions, Taxation policies, Production techniques, Factor prices, and their availability, Price of related goods, Industry structure.

  1. Price of a product
  2. Cost of production
  3. Natural conditions
  4. Transportation conditions
  5. Taxation policies
  6. Production techniques
  7. Factor prices and their availability
  8. Price of related goods
  9. Industry structure

Price of the given commodity

The supply of a product is the amount that producers will provide at a given price. The price of the given commodity is one of the factors that determine its supply. If the price of a product rises, its supply will increase, and vice versa. Other factors that affect a product’s supply include market conditions, market size, and the ease with which producers can manufacture or procure the good in question.

Cost of production

The cost of production is the total cost incurred by a business in order to bring a product or service to market. This includes direct costs such as materials, labor, and equipment necessary for production, as well as indirect costs such as rent and utilities. The cost of production is influenced by several factors including competition and government regulations.

Natural conditions

Natural resources are a vital part of the development of any country. They are a key determinant of the supply of natural resources, and they drive the demand for labor, which in turn affects the overall growth of a country. Natural resources can be divided into two broad categories: renewable and non-renewable. Renewable resources, such as water and air, can be used over and over again, while non-renewable resources, such as oil and coal, cannot be replaced once they have been used up.

Transportation conditions

Transport is the main character displayed in the increase in the supply of goods. Because the transport condition is not better than the supply of goods doesn’t supply on time. therefore, change in the price but doesn’t change in the supply.

Taxation policies

Implies that the special guidelines of the government, including financial coverage and industrial policy, have a more impact on the delivery of a product. For instance, an increase in tax on excise responsibilities would decrease the delivery of a product. On the opposite hand, if the tax rate is low, then the supply of a product would boom.

Production techniques

The supply of goods additionally relies upon the form of strategies used for production. Obsolete techniques bring about low production, which further decreases the delivery of goods. Over the years, there has been exceptional development in production techniques, which has brought about a boom in the delivery of goods.

Factor expenses and their availability

The production of goods is dependent on the elements of manufacturing, such as uncooked material, machines and gadgets, and labor.

A boom in the expenses of the elements of production increases the price of manufacturing. This will make it hard for companies to supply massive portions within the marketplace.

Price of related goods

The prices of substitutes and complementary goods additionally impact the supply of a product to a big quantity.

For example, if the rate of tea will increases, farmers would generally tend to develop more tea than coffee. This could lower the delivery of tea inside the marketplace.

Industry shape

The supply of products is also dependent on the shape of the enterprise wherein a company is working. If there is a monopoly inside the industry, the manufacturer may restrict the supply of his/her items with the intention to raise the costs of products and increase income.

On the alternative hand, in case of a superbly competitive market shape, there could be a huge wide variety of dealers inside the market. Consequently, the supply of a product could boom.

In the session on supply definition, we will be also discussing supply vs demand.

Supply vs Demand

Supply and demand are two of the most basic concepts in economics. Supply is the availability of goods or services, while demand is the need or want for those goods or services. The law of supply and demand states that producers will produce more of a good when its price rises, and less when its price falls.

Supply may be described as the amount of a commodity that is made to be had to the customers or the consumers by way of the producers at a sure or unique price.Demand can be described because of the choice or the willingness of the buyer alongside along with his potential or say capability to pay for the service or commodity at a specific fee.
When the supply increases but calls for stays constant, it leads to surplus however while the supply decreases and the demand are steady it results in shortage.When the demand increases however supply remains consistent, it ends in scarcity but while the demand decreases and the supply is constant leads to surplus.
Supply dating is an element of time as time is key to delivering because the suppliers need to (but they can’t usually) react rapidly to a change in fee or demand. So, it’s far very crucial to try to decide whether the alternate in charge that’s as a result of the demand might be permanent or brief.However, unlike the deliver courting, there is no effect at the time factor on the call for courting.
As the fee of the product increases, the delivery of the product may even grow, therefore, a direct dating.As the rate of the product will increase, the call for the product decreases as a result indicating an inverse relationship.
The delivery of a firm or a corporation is generally upward sloping nature.Demand is continually downward sloping in nature as its miles are inversely related to the rate of the product.
Supply may be considered from the producer’s angle.Demand needs to be considered from a customer’s or the consumer’s angle.

In the session on supply definition, we will be also discussing supply and demand examples.

Supply and Demand examples

Supply and demand, the two main forces that drive the economy, are also known as market forces. These forces are considered to be the driving factors behind economic events such as inflation, recession, and unemployment. Supply and demand are also used to explain other economic phenomena such as price determination and resource allocation.

Supply and demand examples can be dedicated to the following points

  1. Products
  2. Services
  3. Club Goods
  4. Commodities
  5. Common Goods
  6. Labor
  7. Assets
  8. Securities
  9. Currencies


A luxurious emblem restricts supply that allows you to keep excessive fees and the fame of the brand. For instance, they produce 10,000 units of a selected handbag. The marketplace could demand 1 million gadgets at a charge below $100. At the actual price of $2000, demand is a thousand units a month and it takes the logo 10 months to promote the inventory.


A sort of business software program is typically offered as a monthly consumer-based carrier. Supply is basically unlimited because it expenses companies little or no to scale their services up and down. Worldwide demand for this kind of software program is 1 million user licenses with 99% of calls for falling under a rate of $2 hundred in step with the person in keeping with the month. Any firm that costs extra than $2 hundred will best have to get admission to at least one% of call for. Below $200, firms are fairly charge-insensitive and are concerned extra with best than the fee.

Club Goods

A topic park has a set capacity of 100,000 human beings a day that represents delivery. Demand is primarily based on the calendar with excessive demand on holidays and occasional demand on workdays and in terrible climates. The subject matter park gives a wide variety of reductions on days once they predict call for to below. On excessive-call for days, no discounts are to be had.


A commodity is superb that is offered into a marketplace that is so aggressive that individual customers and sellers have no influence at the charge and have to receive a market charge set through delivery and demand. Any change to both supply or demand pushes the price up to and down. Demand is pushed by way of consumer wishes and options. Supply is driven by way of things like capability, performance, and resource allocation. When calling for declines, delivery will generally decline as lower expenses lead companies to reallocate sources which include land, labor, and capital. When calling for rises, deliver additionally rises as higher fees appeal to greater corporations to the enterprise and existing companies ramp up production.

Common Goods

Common items are such things as air, water, and ecosystems that are a shared commonplace useful resource. They have a fixed, restricted delivery. Common goods are regularly used without value such that demand tends to develop right away. This ends in the overuse of not unusual items resulting in their depletion and destruction. Applying a cost to use common goods can accurate this because it helps to limit call for. For instance, a price to vent pollution into the air.


The supply of a specific ability set is driven by using factors that include demographics and schooling. Demand for a skill set is pushed by way of elements along with financial increase, recessions, enterprise cycles, and technological change. When an ability is in excessive call for, salaries increase. This causes delivery to boom within the long term because the better revenue gives human beings incentives to gather the talent.


The supply of belongings which includes actual estate or gold is normally constant with small increases through the years. Demand can rise and fall dramatically because of factors consisting of financial situations, the chance-taking environment, hobby rates, and cash supply. This can cause periods of considerable rate increases followed by way of intervals of decline.


Security can suddenly grow in supply. For instance, a firm that does a secondary supply of its stock can boom the delivery quickly. Demand for protection is pushed with the aid of investor estimates for its destiny returns and risks.


The delivery of forex is set by way of the economic policy of a country. Demand is generated by using economic hobbies together with exchange and investment flows.

In the session on supply definition, we will also be discussing what is market supply.

What is market supply?

Market supply refers to the amount of a product that sellers in a market are willing and able to produce at a given price. This is in contrast to market demand, which refers to the amount of a product that buyers in a market are willing and able to purchase at a given price. A change in the price of an item will result in changes to both its supply and demand, with the effect on one causing changes on the other.

In the session on supply definition, we will also be discussing what is supply shock.

What is supply shock?

A delivery shock is an unexpected event that changes the aggregate (i.E., overall) supply of products and offerings in a marketplace, up or down.

In the context of history, supply shocks were because of such things as weather, war, and labor strikes. For instance, the 1973-seventy-four oil embargo, in which OPEC individuals retaliated against the U.S. And other countries for helping Israel, caused gasoline shortages and lengthy traces at the pump.

“The manner I want to consider it’s far, a supply surprise is something that impacts our contemporaneous capacity to supply ‘stuff’,” explained Andolfatto, whose research includes financial policy, blockchain, and business cycles. “A typhoon that wipes out infrastructure may be thought of as a bad delivery surprise. Or, if a new invention comes out and, all of an unexpected, I’ve to turn out to be greater effective, that is a deliver shock—however in a good way.”

In January and into February 2020, production powerhouse China had ordered factories to stay closed to sluggish the viruses unfold. Financial headlines centered on capability supply chain disruptions for the entirety from electronics to synthetic sweeteners to autos.

Economically, Andolfatto defined, the coronavirus “truly suits that bill” of a supply surprise. As the virus spreads, “it’s miles affecting, contemporaneously, society’s ability to produce items and services. It is a poor deliver shock in that experience.”

Relates Articles

  1. How to become a CMO? Meaning, salary, role
  2. What is organizational culture theory? Definition, examples
  3. Chief information officer salary | meaning, definition
  4. What is the directing definition? Meaning, important examples.
  5. How to become CFO? Meaning, definition, salary

Leave a Reply

%d bloggers like this: