In this session we will discuss the definition of the industrial revolution, what is the industrial revolution, the features of the industrial revolution, the first, second, third, and fourth industrial revolution.
Definition of Industrial revolution
Most people think about the industrial revolution as a bad thing. which can make revolution between in people. But that is nothing like that. n simple words, the industrial revolution means changes in society and development in the country. let’s discuss deeply the industrial revolution. first upon thanks to the European citizen Mr. Arnold Toynbee because he was the first person who succeeded to make the steam engine in (1852–83) who used this term to describe the economic development in Britain that took place between 1760 and 1840.
According to 1760 and 1840 in between the industrial revolution started. The meaning of the industrial revolution was the process of changing in the social and economic organization resulting from the replacement of hand tools by machine and power tools and the development of factories and large-scale industrial production.
In the session on the positive and negative effects of the industrial revolution, we will also discuss the features of the industrial revolution.
The features of the industrial revolution can be dedicated to the following points.
Technological: – The technological changes included the following points.
- Basically, the use of new chief iron, steel, and material
- There is the use of new energy sources, including both motive power and fuel, such as electricity, coal, petroleum, the steam engine, and the internal combustion engine.
- There is the invention of new machines, like that the power loom and spinning jenny which can be permitted increased production with a smaller expenditure of human energy.
- Which entailed increased specialization of function and division of work, that one is a new organization of work known as the factory system.
- Communication and transportation are important for development including the radio, telegraph, automobile, steam locomotive airplane, and steamship.
- Application of science increasing to the industry. These types of technological changes made possible a tremendously increased mass production of manufactured goods and use of natural resources. (positive and negative effects of the industrial revolution).
We will also discuss the nonindustrial spheres, there were also many new developments, dedicated to the following points.
- For a larger nonagricultural population, the agricultural improvements made possible the provision of food.
- The declines of land as a source of wealth in the face of rising industrial production, and increased international trade, the economic changes that resulted in a wider distribution of wealth.
- The shift in economic power changes the political reflection, as well as new state policies corresponding to the needs of industrialized society.
- The social changes sweeping, including the growth of cities, the emergence of new patterns of authority, and the development of working-class movements.
- The cultural transformations of a broad order. Workers acquired distinctive and new, skills, and their relation to their tasks shifted; instead of being craftsmen working with hand tools, they became machine operators, subject to factory discipline. Finally, there was a psychological change: confidence in the ability to use resources and to master nature was heightened.
In the session on the positive and negative effects of the industrial revolution, we will also discuss the first industrial revolution, second industrial revolution, third industrial revolution, and the last one is the fourth industrial revolution.
- First industrial revolution (1760 to 1830)
- Second industrial revolution (1870 – 1914)
- Third industrial revolution (1969 – 2000)
- Fourth industrial revolution
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