In this session, we will discuss the definition of planning and its characteristics of planning, the importance of planning.
Definition of planning?
All over the world, we all people are engaged in the plan so that definition of planning is one that managerial function. where we can make a plan. Planning is predetermining the future It is a process of setting goals and choosing the actions to achieve those goals. it is looking ahead. it attempts to define the future road map of the organization. It is deciding in advance what to do, where to do it, how to do it, whom to do it, and when to do a certain activity before starting to work.
Planning is based on the theory of thinking before starting work. It is the primary function of our life. so that we all people make plans end and every moment of our life. whether it be to go to school or to buy household goods during shopping. Every people make a plan according to the limitations of budget and resources to get maximum satisfaction and to fulfill goals from our activities. (definition of planning).
Planning is the primary function of management. Planning selects future courses of action from among the alternatives. it serves as a guide for allocating resources in a coordinated way. it specifies the way and means of implementing for directing efforts. it provides targets that serve as standards for controlling performance.
According to Stephen P. Robbins
Planning is deciding in advance about what to do, how to do it, when to do it, and who is to do it. it provides the ends to be achieved.
According to Ricky Griffin: Planning is setting an organization’s goals and deciding how best to achieve them.
Planning takes an organization to where it wants to be. The difference between the desired state and the existing state is call a strategic gap.
In the session on the definition of planning, we will also discuss the characteristics of planning.
The characteristics of planning can be dedicated to the following points.
- Primary Function of Management
- Thinking and intellectual process
- Continuous process
- Dynamic Function
The primary function of management
All over the world or organization, management activities start with planning. All the primary functions of management like organization, staffing, directing, and controlling are based on planning. So planning precedes the execution of all other management functions and allows managers to organize, staff, direct, and control the activities in a better way so that they have to achieve organizational goals.
In other words, all the managerial functions revolve around the plan formulated through this process. In any organization, the manager can manage or control all the employees base on planning because it is invariably treate as an extension of the planning process and cannot exist without it. (definition of planning) The most important of all managerial functions is goals. Goals developed by planning guide the entire organization.
Thinking and Intellectual process
Planning is a scheduled thinking and an intellectual process. The process of thinking and the intellectual process is deciding what kind of actions are taken in near future. It has a number of steps to decide the future course of action. Planning makes all other processes draw their intellectual backing or logical backing. That is to say, when staffing is done, the logic employed is whether the new recruit will fit into the plan.
In other words, Planning which lays down this logic is thus the intellectual mental process. so that it involves many primary functions of management like predicting business environment changes, weighing risks, analyzing trade-offs, etc. This is a great degree of mental process and ability. (definition of planning).
Hence, the other managerial function of planning is logic and their requirement is only the application of the logic behind the plan.
Planning is a continuous process that never ceases a manager upon some assumption. Therefore the changing situation by the manager has to rethink and dispose of plans and actions. Even after a plan is formulate for a time period, the primary function of management of planning still persists to make new plans for another period but primarily also for creating a contingency plan if something goes wrong.
The continuous process involves never ended collection, selection of facts, evaluation, and scientific investigation and resolution or selects the practical alternative action. (definition of planning).
The primary function of management. there are three levels of management. top level of management, the middle level of management, lower level of management so that in any organization top level of management of managers display plans for hole entire of the organization, whereas the other entire department makes plans for heir whole department. I mean to say that planning is mainly a process of the top level of management for this. it is a pervasive function. The top-level management develops plans for the organization as a whole, whereas a supervisor makes plans for the set of employees under him, and the department manager makes plans for his department.
It is done at every level of an organization to make it pervasive. Planning may nature and scope to change from person to person.
Planning involves that has to necessarily adapts to change time in the world. plans are formulate to create change in the real world and may require the business to changes in course of action. However businesses it’s various rigid and embodied policies and procedures, along with their employees, because of their beliefs, philosophies, and mentality are more often than not resistant to these proposed changes.
The process of forecasting involves broader function planning. That means forecasting is not planning whereas planning includes forecasting. So that according to George. R. Terry “Planning is the selecting and relating of facts and the making and using of assumptions regarding the future in the visualization and formulation of proposed activities believe necessary to achieve desired results”.
There is the different department of the organization. So planning helps to coordinate the activities of all departments. It provides guidelines to do work to all managers and staff of all levels of management that’s all are involve in the organization.
In the session on the definition of planning, we will also discuss the importance of planning.
The importance of planning can be dedicated to the following points.
- Planning provides direction
- its reduces the risk of uncertainties
- Planning reduces overlapping and wasteful activities
- its promotes innovative ideas
- Planning facilities decision making
Planning provides direction
Under the process of planning the objectives of an organization are defined in simple and clear words. It provides direction which the organization’s employees help to gets higher productivity. So planning makes clear and motivated what employees have to do, how to do when to do etc. Planning makes in advance how work has to be done. In an organization in advance employees know in which direction have to follow. This leads to unity of direction also. In any kind of organization, there is no planning. Then the employee would be working in a different direction. Then the employees never get higher productivity and the organization would not be able to achieve its desired goals. (definition of planning). The continuous process involves never ended collection, selection of facts, evaluation, and scientific investigation and resolution or selects the practical alternative action. (definition of planning).
It reduces the risk of uncertainties
In the words, there are different types of organizations. All organizations will be facing many uncertainties and unexpected situations. That’s why all organization makes plan because the plan is always done for future and future is uncertain. With help of planning, possible changes in the future are anticipate and various activities are plann in the best possible way. The plans also include unexpected risks such as fire or some other calamities in the organization. The resource is kept aside in the plan to meet such uncertainties.
Planning reduces overlapping and wasteful activities
Under the process of planning. In the organization, there were make a plan for future activities in order to achieve organizational objectives. In organization, there are different types of the department. So requirements all the departments to make a plan. The departmental plan is derive from the main organization plan. As a result, there will be coordination in different departments. In other words, if the whole organization’s members like that managers, nonmanagers, and all the emp[loyees are following the course of actions according to plan then there will be integration in the activities. The plan ensures clarity of thought and action work can be carrie out smoothly.
Its promotes innovative ideas
The main key is to achieve organizational goals that are call planning. it is definitely correct that planning selects the best alternative out of the many available. So planning requires high thinking and it is an intellectual process. So that there is a great opportunity to finds better ideas to promote the organization. Planning involves the organization manager how to think and how to assume future conditions. So it makes the managers innovative and creative ideas.
For example, the owners of the organization want to expand their business. Then there are different types of ideas explore in the mind of managers. He will think like that Should some other varieties of the existing products be manufacture? Should retail sales be undertaken along with the wholesales? would some branch be open somewhere else for the existing or old product? Should some new product be launch? (Definition of planning).
Planning facilities decision makings
To takes an organization’s decision is call decision making. Because decision-making involves taking the best alternatives for the organization. So planning helps the managers to takes various decisions. As in planning goals are set in advance and predictions are made for the future. These predictions and goals help the managers to take fast decisions.
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